A detailed introduction to the tools underlying hclwizard are given in Zeileis et al. (2019). HCL-based color palettes for statistical graphics had first been introduced in Zeileis et al. (2009) with further adaptations and information in Stauffer et al. (2015).

  • Achim Zeileis, Ross Ihaka, Paul Murrell, Kurt Hornik, Jason C. Fisher, Reto Stauffer, Claus O. Wilke, Claire D. McWhite (2019). “colorspace: A Toolbox for Manipulating and Assessing Colors and Palettes.”
  • Achim Zeileis, Kurt Hornik, Paul Murrell (2009). “Escaping RGBland: Selecting Colors for Statistical Graphics.” Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 53(9), 3259-3270. [PDF preprint]
  • Reto Stauffer, Georg J. Mayr, Markus Dabernig, Achim Zeileis (2015). “Somewhere over the Rainbow: How to Make Effective Use of Colors in Meteorological Visualizations.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96(2), 203-216.

Further Reading

  1. BAMS. (1993). Guidelines for Using Color to Depict Meteorological Information: IIPS Subcommittee for Color Guidelines. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 74(9), 1709–1713.<1709:GFUCTD>2.0.CO;2
  2. Borland, D., & Ii, R. M. T. (2007). Rainbow Color Map (Still) Considered Harmful. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 27(2), 14–17.
  3. Brettel, H., Viénot, F., & Mollon, J. D. (1997). Computerized Simulation of Color Appearance for Dichromats. Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision, 14(10), 2647–2655.
  4. Brewer, C. A. (1997). Spectral Schemes: Controversial Color Use on Maps. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems, 24(4), 203–220.
  5. Fairchild, M. D. (2013). Color Appearance Models. John Wiley and Sons.
  6. Harrower, M. A., & Brewer, C. A. (2003). An Online Tool for Selecting Color Schemes for Maps. The Cartographic Journal, 40, 27–37. Retrieved from
  7. Healey, C. G. (1996). Choosing Effective Colours for Data Visualization. In Visualization ’96 Proceedings (pp. 263–270).
  8. Knoblauch, K. (2002). Color Vision. In S. Yantis & H. Pashler (Eds.), Steven’s Handbook of Experimental Psychology – Sensation and Perception (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 41–75). New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  9. Levkowitz, H., & Herman, G. T. (1992). Color Scales for Image Data. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 12(1), 72–80.
  10. Light, A., & Bartlein, P. J. (2004). The End of the Rainbow? Color Schemes for Improved Data Graphics. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 85(40), 385–391.
  11. MacEachren, A. M. (1995). How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. The Guilford Press.
  12. Mahy, M., Van Eycken, L., & Oosterlinck, A. (1994). Evaluation of Uniform Color Spaces Developed after the Adoption of CIELAB and CIELUV. Color Research and Application, 19(2), 105–121.
  13. Moreland, K. (2009). Diverging Color Maps for Scientific Visualization. In Advances in Visual Computing – 5th International Symposium, ISVC 2009 (Vol. 5876, pp. 92–103). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
  14. Mullen, K. T. (1985). The Contrast Sensitivity of Human Colour Vision to Red-Green and Blue-Yellow Chromatic Gratings. The Journal of Physiology, 359(1), 381–400.
  15. Okabe, M., & Ito, K. (2008). Color Universal Design (CUD): How to Make Figures and Presentations That Are Friendly to Colorblind People. Retrieved from
  16. Rogowitz, B., & Treinish, L. A. (1998). Data Visualization: The End of the Rainbow. IEEE Spectrum, 35(12), 52–59.
  17. Silva, S., Sousa Santos, B., & Madeira, J. (2011). Using Color in Visualization: A Survey. Computers and Graphics, 35(2), 320–333.
  18. Spekat, A., & Kreienkamp, F. (2007). Somewhere over the Rainbow – Advantages and Pitfalls of Colourful Visualizations in Geosciences. Advances in Science and Research, 1(1), 15–21.
  19. Tufte, E. (1990). Envisioning Information. Cheshire: Graphics Press.
  20. Ware, C. (1988). Color Sequences for Univariate Maps: Theory, Experiments and Principles. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 8(5), 41–49.
  21. Ware, C. (2004). Color. In Information Visualization: Perception for Design (pp. 103–149). Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc.
  22. Wilke, C. O. (2019). Color Scales. In Fundamentals of Data Visualization. O’Reilly Media. Retrieved from
  23. Wong, B. (2011). Color Blindness. Nature Methods, 8(6), 441.